Monday, 31 May 2010

An example sentence

I just wrote a sentence which made me feel satisfied for its grammatical and poetical brilliance, if I say so myself:

Uπтα ἁтн εнтрα εн тεκтει тecειοц εнειнει ἱcтε ἱтι, βαᴧтрοц Ἁcмοц αφαнтιοц cιнιтιει мαнει мυцιнтιc cтι.

It is quite hard to translate it, as its word order is impossible in English. If you'd translate it word by word, you would get this:

On which.acc through in roof.dat temple.gen hole.dat light.nom shine.3sg, statue.gen Hasmo.gen cloaked.gen left.dat hand.dat sparrow.dim.nom sit.3sg.

But in normal English, in the most common word order, it would be:

On the left hand of the statue, on which light shines through the hole in the temple's roof, of the cloaked Hasmo sits a little sparrow.

Furthermore, the first half of the sentence shows alliteration almost mirrorshaped. The first letters from the words ἁтн to ἱтι are: H-EE-TT-E-HH. Another peculiarity is the fact that the H is a semi-vowel, the E is a vowel and the T is a consonant.
On top of that, the sentence is like a wrap, consisting of 3 different layers:
A-B-C-B-A, where A is the main sentence (υπтα ἁтн ἱcтε ἱтε), B is adverbial to ἱтε (εнтрα εнειнει) and C says something about εнειнει (εн тεκтει тecειοц).

Moving on, we see 3 genitives. Βαᴧтрοц is the antecedent of ἁтн, and says something about which мαнει. Ἁcмοц says in its turn something about whose Βαᴧтрοц, and αφαнтιοц either about Ἁcмοц or βαᴧтрοц.
The sparrow sits on the left hand, because the right hand is generally the stronger, and therefore left symbolises youth.

All in all, I'm quite fond of this sentence. It took me some minutes to formulate, but it is mostly (brilliantly) arbitrary.

Sunday, 30 May 2010

Journey through Lurionas (Story)

I am going to write a story in lurioneski, both to improve my vocabulary and to further work out my conworld and conreligion. It is written by a Karvokan called Παυcαнιο (Pausanio; reference, anyone?) son of Fastizar ("thickface"). I'll post the first few lines here, where he explains why he is making his journey.

Παцcαнιοц Φαcтιzαрοцι Καрцοκαα
by Pavsanio Fastizarovi from Karvoka

Ποιᴧειc мε eκεκαcтрαc цαтαυн мε тαтιεн διεн ποιωнтιεн "ἑδε" ἁυтιεc αнαᴧeгοнтιεc "нε οιδιc?" Ι eαнαᴧeгω "гαр нε οιδω." Mεтα ὡc нε πειнοнтιωc ιнοc, цαᴧтε ῾eι ᴧαнгει ᴧeгοмα, αυтрιωc ᴧυрιοнωc cмικрυ οιδωмα.
Many had asked me why I did this journey, "or", answering themselves, "don't you know?" I answered "because I don't know." Because they didn't understand, [I said] that we, although we speak one language, know so little of the other luriones.

Edit: more paragraphs of this story will be posted under the tag 'diu'.

Saturday, 29 May 2010

The Karvokan and Naupilan Accent

The Karvokes and the Naupiles, who live in my conworld, are by definition luriones, because they speak Lurioneski. They do, however, speak with an accent. Because there is no constant communications between the different cities, the way words are written changes as well. (You might want to have read phonology before continuing.)

The Karvokan accent
The main feature of the karvokan accent is that they pronounce a lot of weak υ's as ц's. For instance:

υ > ц;
Нαυπιᴧα (Naupila; [næʋpila]) is pronounced [nɐvpila] (or [nɐfpila]).
ευтιι ('good'; [ɛʋtii]) is pronounced [ɛvtii].

Another feature is that a lot of silent ε's are dropped:

ε > ';
ᴧυβεр ('book') > ᴧυβр.

The Naupilan accent
As naupiles are merchants, they are very busy men and therefore have no time to pronounce 'all those long vowels' *. The following changes have occured:

ει > ι;
ειδειн > ιδιн ('to see').
ου > ο;
παтрο мου > παтрο мο ('my father').
ιι > ι;
ευтιι > ευтι ('good').
ιι > ι ('he goes').

Also, strong vowel versions (α:, υ:, ι: and ι.) are ignored when vowel assimilation is concerned. E.g.:

ἁοмα > ὡмα ('we have').

Furthermore, υ's are pronounced (but not written) as ι's.
Finally, the ι: is pronounced as the semi-vowel [j] to form more diphthongs:

Λυтια (Lutia; [lytia] or [lytija]) is pronounced [lɪtja].

*This is actually quite paradoxal, because you can imagine how hard it might be to understand someone who speakes with such an accent.

Comparison and Diminutive

There are 5 degrees of comparison (as opposed to the 3 most languages have):

ὁрιтαтιι - highest
ὁрιтeрιι - higher
ὁрιι - high
ὁрιмeрιι - less high
ὁрιcαтιι - least high

The first ι is very weak, so root and infix might assimilate. E.g.: ευтαтιι ('best'; instead of ευтιтαтιι), ᴧυмeрιι ('less low'; instead of ᴧυмιмeрιι) or ὑδecαтιι ('least wet'; instead of ὑδeιcαтιι).
This will, however, only happen with roots that end with a vowel or with the same consonant. For instance, note the difference between φαcαтιι/φαcιтαтιι ('least hot' and 'hottest'; from φαcιι) and φαcтιι/φαcтαтιι ('thick' and 'thickest'; from φαcтιι).

Not only adjectives can be compared, also nouns, adverbs and verbs.
E.g.: εтαрιтαтιc ('the most/best friend') or ιω тεᴧxιтeрιωн ('I go faster').

To compare with something, the comparing dative is used: ι мεнω ευтeрιι cει - 'I am better than you'.

Finally, there is also a diminutive, used to indicate a smaller version of something. It has the infix -ιнт-. For instance: καтιнтιc - 'a little cat'.

Wednesday, 26 May 2010


The numeral system is quite simple (as is the rest of the lurion grammar).

Numbers 1-10, 100, 1000 and 10,000

1 - ἑιc (῾eου, ῾eι, ἑн)
2 - δцοc (δουc, δευ, δцαc)
3 - трεc (трωc, трειc, трεc)
4 - тεтрαc (тεтрωc, тεтрαιc, тεтрαc)
5 - πεнтεc (*)
6 - ἑκтεc
7 - επтεc
8 - οκтεc
9 - нαнтεc
10 - δeκεc
100 - zeнεc
1000 - βουᴧεc
10,000 - мυрιαδεc

(* All other numbers are conjugated as plural neuter nouns. In fact, they are plural neuter nouns.)

For numbers 20, 30, 40 etc; 200, 300, 400 etc; 2000, 3000, 4000 etc and 20,000, 30,000, 40,000 etc, the prefices for the digits 2-9 exist:

δυο-, трι-, трα-, πεн-, ἑκ-, επ-, οκ- and нαн-

For instance, 20 is δυοδeκεc and 70,000 is επмυрιαδεc.

For the digits behind a tenfold, hundredfold etc, the infices for the digits 1-9 exist:

-εн-, -δυ-, -трε-, -тεтрε-, -πεн-, -εκт-, -επт-, -οκт- and -нαнт-

For instance, 14 is δeκтεтрεc and 392 is трιzeннαнтδυεc or, shortened, трιzeнαнδυεc.

100 and 10,000 are the most important, 10 and 1000 are only used when it is necessary. Other examples:

трαβουᴧεc - four.thousand - 4000
οκмυрιαδπεнβουᴧεc - eight.tenthousand.five.thousand - 85,000
ἑκмυрιαδδeκεнεc - - 60,011
επмυрιαδδυнαнzeнοκттεтрεc - seven.tenthousand.two.nine.hundred.eight.four - 72,984

(That sure is a mouthful. Then again, so is seventytwothousandninehundredeightyfour.)

Tuesday, 25 May 2010

The Luriad

The ᴧυрιαδ (luriad) is the 'national'* piece of clothing of the Lurionas; it is worn only by men**.

It basically has the shape of a longsleeved shirt, and can be formed from one easily.
There are 4 main ways to wear a luriad:

Lutian - ᴧυтιε ᴧυрιαδ
The elite of Lutia wears a luriad around their right shoulder. Most of it rests on the back, only a small part on the front of the shoulder. The sleeves are tied together somewhere across the chest or under the left arm.

Dorinian - δοрιнιε ᴧυрιαδ
The soldiers from Dorina sometimes wear nothing more than a luriad tied around their waist. Most of it hangs in front of the right hip, covering their crotch. The sleeves are tied together somewhere in front or on the side of their left hip. You could consider it some kind of loincloth, although a luriad is much larger and a dorinian luriad only covers the front.

Naupilian - нαυπιᴧιε ᴧυрιαδ
The fishermen of Naupila wear it simillar to the dorines, but they wear it on top of some (short) trousers, and on the back of their right hip. The sleeves are tied as with the dorinan luriad.

Izakrian - ιzακрιε ᴧυрιαδ
This style is not named after a city, but it is a variation on the luriad. It's much longer but has shorter sleeves. It is tied around the waist, leaving only the left hip visible. This is much more universal and can be weared by anyone at most occasions. There are also womens skirts in this style.

I have no idea if I've made myself clear, but I hope you get the idea.

(* Mind you, Λυрιοнαc is the collective name of the cities and villages where ᴧυрιοнεcκι is spoken, not an actual country.)
(** The luriones are quite sexist when it comes to elite and religious affairs. For instance, all the gods are male. Women are respected, though; only more as mothers and wifes.)

Λυрιοнιε Тeωнυ - Lurion Religion

The lurion religion is a polytheism, consisting of 7 main gods (тeec), 2 hypergods (αβωнтeec; 'top gods') and maybe some subgods (βαᴧιцωнтeec; 'below gods').

First, there was only nothing and the god of 'nothingness', Нαο. Then, there was everything and the god of everything, Eo. For ages, Нαo and Eo kept replacing eachother out of existence. Finally, there was balance and the god of balance, Δрαгο. From him came the other 6 gods:

Xωтαнο was the earth and the planets. On this earth Cιцο, air, formed. Then, Ἱδοр, water, and from this soil came the flora and fauna, Ἁcмο. To the humans did Eο give intelligence and the god Mαο, and Нαο gave them war and the god Aκтοр.

Whether or not these gods actually exist in my conworld, I don't know. I guess it doesn't matter, for the only way I will use them, is in myths and stories.
The 7 gods have the ability to become antropomorf, thus take the shape of humans. There are also mythological creatures that are antropomorf, for instance minotaurs (βοцαнтрec) and satyres (мεκαнтрec).

Here is a summary about the 7 тeec.

God of Balance
He wears a robe and a hood, and has dragon wings on his back. When in battle, he might also have a dragons head, making him a δрαгαнтεр, i.e. a man with the head and wings of a dragon.

God of Earth and Death
He is a βοцαнтεр, a man with the head of a bull. He wears only a δοрιнιε ᴧυрιαδ (dorinian luriad*), and carries a double-faced axe, that he uses to open the skulls of the deceased (by age or disease) to let their soul be absorbed by the earth. Xotano collects these souls and returns them to Drago.

God of Fire and War
He is a καтαнтεр, i.e. he has the head of a tiger or panther. He wears a dorinian luriad or trousers. He carries a sword in one hand. Victims of war should be cremated (not buried).

God of Water and Wealth
When he is in the water, he might be a ποcκαнтεр (a man with a fish's tail). When on land, he wears trousers and a naupilan luriad. He carries a sword and a shield. Men that die on sea should be delivered to the sea.

God of Air, Light and Crafts
He is a цιδαнтεр; he has the head and wings of a bird (often falcon). He wears trousers and a lutian luriad, and carries a bow and arrow.

God of Nature, Life and Beauty
The youngest of the gods, he has the appearance of a 16 year old boy, although sometimes he is a мεκαнтεр (having goat's legs). He always wears a hood and often a robe, to prevent mortals from becoming enchanted by his beauty. He is often accompanied by a falcon or a sparrow. He carries a knive and sometimes ropes.

God of Night and Wisdom
He wears trousers or is a cεрπαнтεр (i.e. has a snake's tail), a lutian luriad and sometimes a cape. He carries a spear, which he sometimes throws from the sky (i.e. lightning).

(* For more information about the luriad - the lurion national clothing - please read the post above this one.)

Monday, 10 May 2010

The Dual

I said I'd explain about the dual some time ago, but I totally forgot. Therefore, here it is.


- υc
- ουc
- ευ
- αc


The dual is used for pairs, thus not just for any 2 items. A good example is οπυc (eyes / a pair of eyes), e.g. αнтрωπec οπευ ειδεc, "humans look with their eyes" (lit: humans with-pair-of-eyes look).
Other examples are other body (ακeυc, 'a pair of ears') or φeᴧυc, 'a pair of lovers/partners.
(It would be nonsense to say αмβрυc, 'a pair of apples', or δцοc οπυc, 'a pair of two eyes'.)

Introduction to my Conworld

I'm working on a conworld as a setting for Lurion, here's a crude drawing I made (with pencil, finishing touch with the pc); click for a bigger version.
Basically, Lurion is spoken in the Λυрιοнαc (Lurionas), which is not so much a country as the name the citizens of numerous cities and villages call the lands they live in. Everyone that is not from the Lurionas is considered a βαрβαрιc (barbaris, i.e. barbarian). The places outside Lurionas are generally called the Βαрβαрαc.

There are four cities or ποᴧεc (poles) so far: Lutia, Dorina, Naupila and Karvoka. Lutia is the most scientific and philosophical; Dorina is quite a military city; Naupila is a trading city with enormous docks; the area around Karvoka is quite cold.

The Luriones do not often come in contact with the Fartes, let alone the Gerimes, when they do it most likely is to battle, although some trading does occure.

More will follow on these cultures as I develop it.